ROUGH rough Draft #3

In her article, Boyd claims that students don’t understand what they’re reading on the internet and students nowadays tend to read the first response their given on the internet and believe it. This may be because students aren’t able to comprehend what they’re reading because they don’t receive the skills such as digital literacy skills during their primary education. In the Open University Applied Linguistics and Literacies (ALL) Research Groups’ article “Critical Digital Literacy Is Vital for Education Today” the author Liz Ellis focuses on discussing why it is so important to be learning how to comprehend what we’re reading. Ellis expands on Boyds argument and provides more information on one of her main topics that since social media is one of the main sources that people get their information from, most of it may be “fake news” and it has become a panic. She says that “Much of this focus has been on the underlying technology, and particularly the algorithms which create the experience people have of using it, and how this is having an impact on the way news is consumed and shared.” (Ellis) What she means by this is that, the algorithms the major search browsers use create the way people are encountering the information. Due to the fact that these algorithms are biased and they don’t provide the most reliable news, means that people are not getting the most correct information. If people were taught how to analyze and recognize that the information they were reading is most likely untrue then we wouldn’t consistently have the problem of “fake news” being spread around.

Boyd also speaks upon how students have grown up and are taught throughout their lives to never use Wikipedia because “anybody can edit or write what they want”. Boyd refutes these teachers by saying “Wikipedia provides an ideal context for engaging youth to interrogate their sources and understand how information is produced.” (Boyd) Additionally, Madison Malone- Kircher from New York Magazine sees eye to eye with Boyd in her article “Your Middle School Teacher Was Wrong About Wikipedia”. She expands upon how research has been done on Wikipedia and “only 7 percent of all Wikipedia edits are considered vandalism; that is, spam or edits designed to intentionally trick or misinform a reader” (Malone- Kircher). Both Boyd and Madison touch base on how since people are able to update it frequently and whenever they want, Wikipedia could possibly be the most up to date encyclopedia there is today.

 

November 13th HW

I think the path i’m choosing to take for the Unit 3 paper is path #4, the path that work’s on extending, illustrating, or challenging the argument that Boyd makes where young people aren’t being taught “critical digital literacy”. I plan to visit many different sites and sources to find the most credible of either what people are teaching the young generation, what people think we should teach them, and maybe what we shouldn’t teach.

Some websites I found are

Most of these websites focus on critical digital literacy, which is Boyd’s main claim. Some  discuss the framework for what we should teach, why we should teach these, and outcomes for students when they know these skills. One specific quote that relates to Boyd is off of the site from The Open University when they say, “… with people believing that a full 80% of the news they read online is biased. And the same pattern exists in the UK, with less than a quarter of the population trusting social media as an accurate source for the news.”

November 8th Extra Credit

“Why Students Cant Google Their Way to the Truth” Summary/ Notes

  • Authors are Sam Wineburg, a professor in the Stanford Graduate School, and Sarah McGrew a doctorate student at Stanford.
  • The overall argument is that we need to be smarter about what we think is true on the internet
  • They state that although some people think the younger generation is better at finding out what’s true, we are not because by looking things up on the internet, most of the time the information is incorrect
  • They use research studies and their results from Stanford and Northwestern University to assert their argument
  • The claim that we blindly trust the search engine to put the most reliable results first
  • They discuss what fast- checkers are and what they do
    • Landing on an unfamiliar site, the first thing checkers did was to leave it
    • Fast checkers know its not about “About”
    • Fast checkers look past the order of search results

Nov 6th

Boyd’s main argument in It’s Complicated is that we are not born into the understanding and knowledge of technology just because the time we were born. She describes that just because the generation now is tech savvy, doesn’t necessarily mean that every single child knows how to use technology. She uses examples of finding younger kids that didn’t know the difference between a web browser and the internet and other major claims to assert her overall argument.

Some of her main claims that she’s uses to assert her argument is that we have become digital natives, we need to learn how to comprehend what were reading, and Wikipedia isn’t simply a product of knowledge; it’s also a record of the process by which people share and demonstrate knowledge.

One of the things in the article I am interested in researching more about is the algorithms. Being that I’ve never heard this term before and she states “But algorithms are fundamental to how many computational systems, including Google, work.” interests me. I would further like to understand what this means and how these search engines like Google work and use “algorithms.

Nov. 1st

I found this article to be interesting because she touches on how teens these days are thought to automatically know how to use technology and understand the different in’s and out’s that come with it which I find so true. Another thing she brought up that I found to be interesting was “By 2011, 95 percent of American teenagers had some form of access to the internet, whether at home or at school” which I found to be crazy but well understandable, being that middle schools and high schools are now sending their students home with iPads or personal computers to do their work on.

Being that this article is based on technology and social media and how people use it Boyd’s main claims are evolved around these subjects. One of her main claims is that teens need to become media literate and know the skills on how to ask questions and how to critically think about what were seeing. Another claim is that “Wikipedia provides an ideal context for engaging youth to interrogate their sources and under- stand how information is produced.” she discusses how teacher tell their students to stay clear of wikipedia because the sources are not credible and anyone can change the information, making it most likely “untrue”, however she thinks that Wikipedia can help us in understanding how people produce knowledge.

Paper 2 ROUGH Draft

Sydney George

Professor Werry

RWS 100

30 October 2018

Title of Your Report

Have you ever gotten a sudden rush of excitement or happiness when you receive a notification on social media or when you feel your phone vibrate? This is because social media triggers a chemical compound, called dopamine, to be released into our neurons giving us the same rush as when humans use drugs, alcohol, and other dangerous addictive behaviors. Roger McNamee, a businessman, investor, venture capitalist, musician,q ex Facebook employee, and the managing director and co- founder of Elevation Partners, argues in his article called, “I invested early in Google and Facebook. Now they terrify me.” that social media companies have become a “menace to public health and democracy,” and consumers will have to force them to change. In this essay I will identify and examine McNamee’s rhetorical strategies, analyze his assumptions, discuss a strength or weakness, and examine one of the sources he applies to his argument.

Throughout his article, McNamee asserts his main claims with credible evidence and statistics in order to portray logos to strategically persuade his audience. He uses different research studies and their results, facts on social media, and personal anecdotes to assert his claim. He states “The Facebook application has 2 billion active users around the world. Google’s YouTube has 1.5 billion. These numbers are comparable to Christianity and Islam, respectively, giving Facebook and Google influence greater than most First World countries.” Choosing to use this statistic provides a vision and idea for the audience to understand how many people statistically use social media and how many people he claims it is affecting. McNamee’s use of this fact is strategic because, by providing evidence for the readers to understand the concept more clearly, they will be more likely to agree with him, opposed to someone who doesn’t know and can’t understand how many people are actually being affected. This strategy is effective because with the understanding and explanation about the concept it may become confusing to the audience and push them away from even finishing the article. McNamee’s choice of facts and statistics help us understand where he is coming from and it allows us to be able to be persuaded and agree with his argument.

Additionally Mcnamee also uses strategies such as word choice, and credibility in order to persuade his audience using ethos. Word choice is effective in an argument because by using certain words and phrases, they can influence people more. From the start stating “I invested in Google and Facebook years before their first revenue and profited enormously,” immediately establishes that being an ex Facebook worker, he most likely has correct information on the company and that he can be trusted. Including this quote is strategic because being that he was employed with Facebook and isn’t someone on the outside bashing on their company tells the reader that the stories, facts, and evidence are most likely correct and not made up. Another strategy McNamee uses in order to persuade us is word choice. Including words and phrases such as, “Like gambling, nicotine, alcohol or heroin, Facebook and Google — most importantly through its YouTube subsidiary — produce short-term happiness with serious negative consequences in the long term.” is very powerful because choosing to use this phrase and choice of words introduces the topic that social media is just like these dangerous addictive behaviors. Both of the strategies McNamee used in his article for ethos, word choice and credibility, assert his claims immensely as they are both effective in changing someone views on a topic.

In McNamee’s article he refers to many different sources to provide evidence for where he is getting his information for his statements. One source he uses, The Washington Post, is embedded in his statement that “Google also is analyzing credit card records of millions of people.” Being that The Washington Post is one of Washington D.C.’s newspaper companies and is highly credible and reliable, it was a great choice for McNamee to refer to for evidence. This article, “Google now knows when its users go to the store and buy stuff” expands upon his statement that Google is keeping track of our credit cards by describing that by keeping track of customers web history it was increasing sales for products that were being promoted and although there is benefits for keeping track of the history it is also found to be too intimate and breaching of our personal privacy. McNamee’s choice for using this source to prove his argument was chosen very well and it makes his article stronger and more credible by showing the support of reliable sources.

One major assumption McNamee assumes throughout the article is that his audience are composed of active users of social media and users of modern technology. Although it may be true that “tech touches us from the moment we wake up until we go to sleep” for the majority but is not necessarily true for the entirety of his audience. By assuming this, he is also assuming that everyone uses social media from the moment we wake up to the moment we go to sleep. Also, he never addresses the potential part of the audience that doesn’t use social media and how just technology is affecting them. Although McNamee does assume this about his audience, being that the vast majority does use technology and social media both, it does relate to many people across the world.

One major weakness in McNamee’s article is that he doesn’t discuss a rebuttal such as the benefits of social media and technology. Addressing the opposing side to his argument that social media has benefits, like staying in contact, marketing, advertising, and many other things, would make his argument stronger. If he would have addressed the other side and analyzed it, it would show the audience why he outweighs the faults over the benefits and he could possibly explain why he thinks the way he does. If McNamee were to address a rebuttal I feel as if his argument would be even more persuasive than it is right now.

Being that more than half of the world’s population uses social media and technology, McNamee’s article is very beneficial. Overall, I found the article to be very persuasive, interesting, and reliable. Now knowing these different facts, and information from the inside of these countries, it has led me to want to use it less and spend more quality time with the people around me face- to face- rather through an addictive smartphone. McNamee’s intentions of making a change to these companies and how they are run could very well be executed just by this article.

 

Works Cited

Brookshire, Bethany. “What Is Dopamine for, Anyway? Love, Lust, Pleasure, Addiction?” Slate Magazine, Slate, 3 July 2013, slate.com/technology/2013/07/what-is-dopamine-love-lust-sex-addiction-gambling-motivation-reward.html.

McNamee, Roger. “I Invested Early in Google and Facebook. Now They Terrify Me.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 10 Aug. 2017, http://www.usatoday.com/story/opinion/2017/08/08/my-google-and-facebook-investments-made-fortune-but-now-they-menace/543755001/.

 

Paper 2 Body Paragraphs

Throughout his article, McNamee asserts his claims with credible evidence and statistics in order to portray logos to strategically persuade his audience. He uses different research studies, facts on social media, and anecdotes to backup his claim. He states “The Facebook application has 2 billion active users around the world. Google’s YouTube has 1.5 billion. These numbers are comparable to Christianity and Islam, respectively, giving Facebook and Google influence greater than most First World countries.” By using this statistic it provides a vision of how many people actually use social media which shows how many people he thinks it is affecting. This statistic is strategic because by providing it, it provides evidence, and it allows the audience to understand what he means when he talks about tons of people being affected. Another quote is “Facebook and Google get their revenue from advertising, the effectiveness of which depends on gaining and maintaining consumer attention.” This quote gives a foundation to relate to because the average person most likely would not know this and being that he was involved in the company it provides a support for his claim. McNamee’s choice of facts and statistics help us understand where he is coming from and it allows us to be able to be persuaded and agree with his argument.

Additionally Mcnamee also uses strategies such as word choice, and credibility in order to persuade his audience using ethos. Starting off his article with “I invested in Google and Facebook years before their first revenue and profited enormously,” immediately establishes that being an ex Facebook worker, he most likely has correct information on the company and that he can probably be trusted. Including this quote is strategic because being that he was employed with Facebook and isn’t someone on the outside bashing on their company tells the reader that the stories, facts, and evidence are most likely correct and not made up. Another strategy McNamee uses in order to persuade us is word choice. Including words and phrases such as, “Like gambling, nicotine, alcohol or heroin, Facebook and Google — most importantly through its YouTube subsidiary — produce short-term happiness with serious negative consequences in the long term.” is very powerful because choosing to use this phrase and choice of words introduces the topic that social media is just like these dangerous addictive behaviors. Choice of words can be very powerful in persuading because it grabs the readers attention, and just by reading one word or one sentence can make a large effect in someones opinion. Both of the strategies McNamee used in his article for ethos, word choice and credibility, assert his claims immensely as they are both effective in changing someone views on a topic.